The following areas are major research directions in the field of ultracold molecules. We roughly follow the outline of the 2009 review paper "Cold and ultracold molecules: science, technology and applications" doi:10.1088/1367-2630/11/5/055049.

1. Methods for production and cooling of molecules

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Direct methods


Buffer gas cooling.

Sympathetic cooling.

Sisyphus cooling.

Stark deceleration.

Stark filtering.

Zeeman slowing.

Optical deceleration.

Direct laser cooling (translational motion).

Laser cooling of internal degrees of freedom.

Indirect methods


Photo-association.

Magneto-association through Feshbach resonances.

Preformed pairs in lattices

2. Fundamental science with ultracold molecules

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High-resolution spectroscopy


Precision measurement


Tests of fundamental symmetries


Chemistry in the ultracold regime


Few-body physics, universal and non-universal


Many-body physics and quantum simulation


Quantum information


3. New theoretical formalism

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4. Relations to other fields

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Highly magnetic atoms


Molecular ions